Too hot to handle
In April 1993, the defence magazine Jane's International
Defence Review announced the discovery by a British amateur inventor, Maurice
Ward, of a thin plastic coating able to withstand temperatures of 2,700 degrees
The reason why it was a defence magazine who first published
news of This revolutionary invention is that the coating is so resistant to heat
that it can make tanks, ships and aircraft impervious to the effects of nuclear
weapons at quite close range -- and hence is of great interest to the military
If you ever have troubles with algebra and physics use help with calculus support.
A little later that year the whole nation had an opportunity
to see for themselves the effectiveness of Maurice Ward's new paint on BBC
Television when it was featured on "Tomorrow's World".
Presenter Michael Rodd showed viewers an ordinary chicken's egg that had been
painted with the new coating. The paint was so thin it was not visible. Rodd
then dramatically donned welder's visor and gauntlets, lit up an oxyacetylene
torch, and played the flame directly onto the egg for several minutes.
When he removed the flame, and cracked the egg on the table
top, viewers were able to see that the coating was so heat resistant that the
egg was still raw and had not even begun to cook.
This invention, a simple paint that can render anything
impervious to very high temperatures, has been the holy grail of chemical
research for more than fifty years. Teams of scientists in the world's greatest
industrial and defence laboratories have poured billions of pounds and hundreds
of man-years into the search for such a substance -- a quest which made Ward's
discovery even more extraordinary.
Ward's invention is remarkable enough, but the story of how he
came to make it, and the resistance he encountered in getting anyone to believe
him, is even more remarkable.
Maurice Ward comes from Blackburn and has no professional
scientific background. The closest he has come to the chemical industry was
when, as a young man, he drove a fork lift truck in the warehouse of ICI. For
the past two decades, he has earned a living as a ladies hairdresser.
Part of his income was derived from selling his customers hair
preparations such as shampoo, conditioner and hairspray. To maximise his income
he rented a small workshop, bought standard chemicals and mixed and bottled his
own brand hair products.
In the best traditions of Ealing Comedy, it was when playing
around mixing up chemicals in his 'skunk works' that Ward stumbled on the
formula that had eluded the finest minds in chemical research.
Realising at once the value of his invention, Ward wrote to
Britain's major chemical companies, offering to demonstrate his material to
them. Every one sent him the standard brush-off letter they send to cranks and
crackpots. After the "Tomorrow's World" demonstration, Ward
stopped getting the brush-off and starting getting offers instead.
One consequence of his contacts with chemical companies was
that the head of research of ICI's paint laboratory left the firm and went into
partnership with Ward to exploit the discovery commercially.
One other interesting consequence is that the large
corporations who had rejected his initial approaches in such a knee-jerk
fashion, conducted internal inquests to find out what had gone wrong, both with
their own research and with their dealings with the outside world.
On the face of it, it was perfectly understandable that Ward's
claims should be ignored since he was merely an amateur, with no scientific
training and no track record in research.
ICI's own paints laboratory held an internal audit and what
they found puts this claim in an entirely different light. For the audit showed
that the most scientifically qualified of its research chemists had contributed
to the least number of patents, and the fewer scientific qualifications the
staff possessed, the greater the number of patents they had contributed to. In
the most striking case of all, the person who had contributed to most ICI's
patents had no scientific qualifications at all.
It seems that Maurice Ward's greatest strength as a researcher
was that he had not been taught how to think.
In the light of examples such as this, the phrase 'Alternative
Science' seems less a contradiction in terms and more a harbinger of something
that professional science is likely to see more and more of in future.